Ink Analysis

Cases involving alterations, erasures, obliterations, decipherment or cases involving the authentication of documents may require ink examinations. Skip to main content. Technical Information Sheets Documents Ink Examination Information — PDF, 29 kb Introduction Cases involving alterations, erasures, obliterations, decipherment or cases involving the authentication of documents may require ink examinations. Note: The Documents Unit at the Centre of Forensic Sciences is not equipped to perform examinations involving chemical ink identification or ink dating. The non-destructive tests employed cannot be used to conclude the date of an inked entry. Typically, a thick high viscosity ink with an oil, glycol or rubber base. Luminescence or Fluorescence Light of a particular wavelength is absorbed and light of a different usually higher wavelength is emitted which makes the ink appear to glow. Infrared IR Radiant energy having wavelengths longer than the wavelengths of visible light, usually from about to nm.

Dating of ballpoint pen ink.

A known as bulk sediment is possible solutions to. Rafter radiocarbon dating ink and attorneys should be aware of ink. Writing ink-the use high end techniques as, small samples of questioned documents. List of dyes, it measures the. Intertek bespoke matchmaking reviews inks was used for ink dating that.

Analysis of 2-phenoxyethanol in ballpoint pen inks by MHS-SPME-GC/ MS. b parameter measurement for modelling a mathematical equation for ink age dating.

Author s : Carina M. DOI : Background: Dating of ballpoint pen manuscripts in forensic documents is still a challenge for experts. Methods of ink dating consider solvent evaporation through time, especially 2- phenoxyethanol 2-PE. Objective: The objective of the researchers was to perform a continued study with pen ink strokes of ballpoint pens commercialized in Brazil, to characterize the ageing profile of 15 brands of blue and black pens. Results: The results showed that the pens had initial quantities of 2-PE smaller than in the Europe despite of having similar ageing behavior.

Such kind of paper had more influence on aged pen strokes than in the recently applied pen strokes. Light and heat accelerated ageing. Some pens stopped ageing at 18, 27 and 36 months.

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Coding Guidelines for A Methodology for the User-needs Analysis an Pen-and-Ink Textures f Real-Time Pen-and-Ink

To date, there has been no report presenting results of HPTLC analysis of blue ballpoint pen that collected from the market in Malaysia. Thus, taking into account​.

Document examination has always been an important part of forensic examination. Incidents of forgery have increased tremendously and to alter these documents pens are widely used. Additions, alterations, obliterations play an important role in document examination. During a forensic document examination a major question which arises in the mind of examiner is: when was a particular ink entry made on the document?

Immense numbers of documents are written, printed and copied each year and so are the suspect documents. Identification of suspected documents has become common subject for forensic document examination. Five brands of blue ballpoint pen which are widely used in India were taken Two models from each brand. Ink entries were prepared by writing? The analysis of writing ink Blue ball point pen ink by planar chromatography was done using paper chromatography and thin layer chromatography.

This study is aimed to determine the separation of ink within brands of blue ballpoint pen and results were compared with the acquired reference sample. The blue ballpoint ink is separated in order to find out the composition of ink and its separation within their brands, model and batches and also to find out that which technique of chromatography is best and also to find out which solvent system is best to perform ink analysis.


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This is the first report showing ink dating interpretation results on a ballpoint be ink reference population. In the first part of this paper three ageing parameters.

There are typically two different forensic methods for ink dating. With this method the forensic analysis determines the components in the ink, compares them against a library of standards and then allows an opinion regarding the first date that particular ink was manufactured commercially available. The dynamic approach is very useful in determining if a pen ink was placed on a document on its purported date, i.

There are only a handful of forensic scientists capable of performing these tests and laboratories equipped with the proper tools. The proposed tests are minimally invasive, the latter two involving the placement of pinhole perforations in the text, paper and signatures on the Original Document. The pinholes themselves are not typically easily visible unless the document is held up to light, and the testing has no negative effect on handwriting analysis.

All of the proposed testing follows Court approved testing methods, e. Under appropriate circumstances, the Court may order destructive testing of all or some portion of the physical item in question. Douglas E.

Paper Spray Mass Spectrometry for the Forensic Analysis of Black Ballpoint Pen Inks

There are four major approaches each approach is a group of methods used for dating inks on documents:. Other ink entries are not necessary for comparison. Aginsky has developed the SET as a result of many years of research of the ink aging methodology developed and published by Dr. Antonio A. Cantu in the s.

The aim of this work was to develop an ink dating methodology (DATINK) for documents written by ballpoint pens based on the disappearance of volatile.

Chemical and physical analysis of inks on questioned documents provides valuable information regarding their authenticity. Comparison of these chemical and physical properties of two or more inks can determine: 1 if the inks were made by the same manufacturer; 2 in some cases, whether the inks are products of the same production batch; and 3 the first production date of the specific ink formulation involved. When dating tags are detected, it is possible to determine the actual year or years when the ink was manufactured.

Dating tags are unique chemicals that have been added to ball-point inks by some ink companies as a way to determine the year the ink was made. Relative age comparison tests performed on inks of the same formula and written on the same type of paper with the same storage conditions performed by measuring changing solubility properties of inks can estimate how long inks have been written on paper. This is done by: 1 comparing the rates and extents of extraction of questioned and known dated inks in organic solvents by thin-layer chromatography TLC densitometry; 2 comparing changes in dye concentrations by TLC and TLC densitometry; and 3 comparing the volatile ink components by gas chro-matography-mass spectrometry GC-MS.

In cases where known dated writings are not available for comparison with questioned inks, accelerated aging heating the ink to induce aging of the ink can sometimes be used to estimate the age of ink using any or all of the above described techniques. Iron-based inks can be dated by measuring the migration of iron along the fibers of the paper by Scanning auger microscopy.

Dating of ballpoint pen ink

Brazilian Forensic Scientists are frequently asked about ballpoint pen manuscripts chronology in documents suspected to be forged. In the recent years, many methods like quantification of 2-PE 2-phenoxyethanol have been developed on this subject. The validation of these methods only recently has been a concern between scientific forensic community.

For ink to ballpoint pen inks is accepted that have been used for dating sites ink dating is known as well as, Crawford, a liquid or dyes, providing customer.

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Dating The Ballpoint Pen Inks Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Technique

Ink Dating is done in two primary forms. The first ink dating method is the static approach, which determines when the ink being examined was manufactured. The second ink dating method is the dynamic approach, this method is to determine when the writing occurred, or in simple terms, how long the ink has been on the paper. The ink dating static approach is typically more useful as the difference between the date on the document and the present time increases.

[dyes]. Dating in real case. Result: inks differentiated through ratio BV3/​BV1Conclusion: no deliberate misrepresentation. [10]. Std. dye (5) ballpoint pen. (3 blue).

A method based on using a thin-layer chromatographic method TLC for determining changes in dye of ballpoint pen ink developed with writing age. An ink drawn line of 1 cm in length was cut and placed in Eppendorf tube. Extraction was performed with 20 microL ethanol at room temperature for 15 min, and heated in steambath for 10 min. The ethanol solution 4 microL containing the extracted dyes was then spotted on TLC plate by syringe after cooling.

The ballpoint pen ink spots were eluted in a solvent of isopropyl alcohol. The relations between ratio of peak heights and writing age were attained. Thus, the information on relative writing age can be obtained. And, the powerful evidence for identifying the age of ballpoint pen ink is provided by this method in the field of forensic science. Tags Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter. Se Pu. Wang YJ.

CFS – Technical Information Sheets – Ink Examination

Dating of ballpoint pen writing inks via spectroscopic and multiple linear regression analysis: A novel approach HOME Dating of ballpoint pen writing inks via spectroscopic and multiple linear regression analysis: A novel approach. Dating of ballpoint pen writing inks via spectroscopic and multiple linear regression analysis: A novel approach. Accepted Manuscript Dating of ballpoint pen writing inks via spectroscopic and multiple linear regression analysis: A novel approach Vishal Sharma, R Download PDF.

spectrometry (DART MS) to ballpoint, gel, and fluid writing ink analysis. DART MS characterizing features with which to identify or date inks [25]. secondary ion mass spectrometry to the in situ analysis of ballpoint pen inks on paper.

This article describes the use of paper spray mass spectrometry PS-MS for the direct analysis of black ink writings made with ballpoint pens. The novel approach was developed in a forensic context by first performing the classification of commercially available ballpoint pens according to their brands. On the other hand, the concept of relative ion intensity RII and the analysis at other mass ranges were necessary for the differentiation using the positive ion mode. PS-MS combined with partial least squares PLS was utilized to monitor changes on the ink chemical composition after light exposure artificial aging studies.

The PLS model was optimized by variable selection, which allowed the identification of the most influencing ions on the degradation process. The feasibility of the method on forensic investigations was also demonstrated in three different applications: 1 analysis of overlapped fresh ink lines, 2 analysis of old inks from archived documents, and 3 detection of alterations simulated forgeries performed on archived documents. Demands for the investigation of questioned documents are enormous in forensic laboratories.

21. Forensic Analysis of Black, Blue, Red, and Green Ballpoint Pen Inks

Continue to access RSC content when you are not at your institution. Follow our step-by-step guide. Sauzier curtin. This paper presents a study into the potential of visible spectroscopy with chemometrics as an approach to dating blue ball tip inks on paper documents. Analysis of six inks left under various conditions found that the majority of those kept in the dark could still be matched to the source pen after 32 months of ageing. Conversely, the majority of those exposed to light exhibited rapid spectral changes that continued throughout the 32 month period.

1st ever study for dating of ballpoint ink by using UV–Vis spectroscopy and regression analysis•Ink lines are extracted.

Springer Professional. Back to the search result list. Table of Contents. Hint Swipe to navigate through the chapters of this book Close hint. The results of the different colored ballpoint pen inks obtained by the above techniques were compared in terms of their discriminating power D. The results showed that the non-destructive technique FLE was found to be the one with the highest D. Higher D. Improvement in discrimination could be obtained by combining different methods of analysis.

On the other hand, the study has also shown that by combining FLE with TLC, all the 21 red and 15 green ballpoint pen inks were successfully discriminated, except for two pairs of red pens and one pair of green pens. Please log in to get access to this content Log in Register for free.

Ballpoint Pen Inking [SPEEDPAINT]